21 May 2020

An extremely distinct and exceptional custom it was. The

of their own time shared the previously Greek approach:
they still believed being nakedwas a hint of shame and
humiliation.
nudity maintained its historical significance of magical
shame.
all, as an artisticconvention,rarely if ever in daily life.


The case of the Gauls is of particular interest for
our theme, for they were warriors. Early sources
Highlight their extraordinarilywar-like spirit-they
were "war-crazy,high spirited and quick for conflict,"
as Straboputs it. They fought naked-or at least some
of them did."' teen nudist photos appear in the
Pergamene statuary, in Etruscan art, on Greek and
Roman coins, and in early Irish legends."112The
sight of these tall, big barbarians,starknakedexcept
for their gold torques, terrifiedthe Romans."13
Nude, and the Greeks' fit nudity is vividly illustratedin a passage in Livy: "Theirwounds were simple
to see because they fight nude and their bodies are
Chubby and white since they neverare nakedexcept in
Conflict; in consequence, there was a greater flow of
blood from their surplus of flesh, the gashes were more
horriblyvisible, and the spots of the dark blood stood
Outside more conspicuouslyagainst the whiteness of their
skins."114The Romans, who exercise in the Campus
In
this the Gauls differed,not only from the Greeks, but
from the Romans too. They didn't generally

Challenging in some cases to tell whether the Gauls' nudity in
art reflectedtheir adoptionof the Greek Classical model, or

Greek Sculpture. The Problem of the Originals (Ann Arbor


practice any type of fit nudity, either whole
(like the Greeks) or partial (like the Romans), in the
course of exercising to prepare their bodies for war.
http://rockby.net/links.php?gotogroup=https://macdotool.com did know of the custom, and in fact imported strigils and other toilet articles connectedwith
this Greek institution-but these were placedin women's tombs, not men's !115 Theirs was evidentlynot the
much of the world had embraced-at least superficially.
When the Gaesetae, and other Gauls-and Germans-undressed for conflict, they reactedto a specific,
dangerous,high-risk position. They deliberatelyremoved
their trousers and capes and threw them aside, showing themselves for the conflict. Polybius credits the
customto the Gaesetae's htAoboet'a
Ka'~ipo-ot, "their
love of glory and their courage."Being a Greek, nevertheless, Polybius adds a practical motive-they did it to
fight more efficiently,lest their clothes be caught on
the bushes and impede their movements."16
The custom might also be clarified by the Gauls' use of
magic. Such a motivation would account for the special
situation. They were assaulting, and exhibited their
valor as filled with thefuror, the madnessof war, and
they threw aside any restraint.
been appealing for a special sort of supra humanassistance in a momentof disaster and of analyzing.'I7
Even more strikinglydifferentfrom the Greekswas
Hebrews. Hebrew convention was essentially opposed to the association of Greek fit nudity. However

world,a widerangeof reactions,fromabsolutehostilthe instiity to relativeacceptance.
They condemned
tutionas a whole:but becausephilosophicaldiscussionstookplacein thegymnasia,HellenizedJews attended;officialdoctrinedid not bar participationin
the palaestra.I8s
In Italy, also, we finda "civilized"
acceptancereflectedin the art, paralleledby fundamentaldifferencesof attitudeand facts.
the Romansdid not practiceathleticnudity. On the
exerciseground,in the CampusMartius,theyworea
perizoma,a coveringcalledthecampestre. Eventheir
ritual,religiousnakednesswas partial. Cicero'srhetoricalthunderagainstAntony'scostumeas a Lupercal-he ran arounddressedin an animal-skinloincloth-is legendary. How coulda consulappearin
suchan undignifiedcostume!"19
Recentstudiesof the
aesthetic
andsociallimits
Geographic,
chronological,
of Greekheroicnudityin Romanarthaveyieldedinteresting results.120 Freestandingsculpture,more
closelytiedto GreekClassicalmodelsthanpaintingor
Aid,acceptedGreekheroicmale nudityas nicely as
the Venus kinds evolvedin the Hellenisticperiod,
whollyor partiallynude.
Earlier,in contemporary
Etruscanart, we see a
"barbarian"
reactionto the Greekcomplexof pictures
and ideals:athleticand artisticmale nudityaccompanied by the dressedfemale amount and-eventually-the returnof the nudeAphrodite.In fact,considerably



for the Etruscan marketplace is now generally accepted.

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